A full urinalysis consists of the following components:
1. Urine Dipstick
Urine dipstick aids in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection/injury, metabolic condition, diabetes and/or kidney/liver disease.
2. Urine Cytology
Urine cytology is the microscopic examination of cells in a stained urine sample, to aid in the detection of bacteria, inflammatory or cancerous cells.
3. Urine Sedimentation
Urine sedimentation is the microscopic examination of cells in an unstained urine sample, to aid in the detection of crystals, casts, and abnormal cells.
4. Urine Specific Gravity
Urine specific gravity is measured using a refractometer to evaluate the ability of kidneys to concentrate and dilute urine; this reflects kidney function. Urine specific gravity results need to be interpreted with considerations such as the patient’s hydration status, serum urea concentration, serum creatinine concentration, medication or fluid therapy status.
5. Urine Culture and Sensitivity
Urine culture and sensitivity aids in screening for the presence of urinary tract infection, the bacterial strain present and the antibiotics needed to eradicate the infection. The urine sample must be collected in a sterile manner and sent to an external laboratory for analysis.
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